Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics aims to spread the message that we are all the solution to conservation. Through science, trainings, guidelines, and education, they accomplish this goal.
“The Center encourages outdoor enthusiasts to consider the impacts that they leave behind, which will undoubtedly affect other people, water and wildlife.”
Disposing of human waste properly is vital to avoid negative impacts on the environment. Such as pollution of water sources or spreading disease. There are easy to use, EPA-approved pack-out systems available that are sanitary for hikers and backpackers.
Typically, burying human feces is the best method to meet proper disposal guidelines. However, some places such as narrow river canyons require you to pack out human waste.
We want to ensure long-term sustainability in our shared lands and you can do your part. Check with land management agencies for specific rules in the area.
Cat holes are a widely accepted method of waste disposal, follow these tips when using this method.
- Take a small garden trowel and dig a hole 6-8 inches deep (4-6 inches in the desert, where there is less organic soil) and 4-6 inches in diameter.
- Keep it at least 200 feet (70 adult paces) from water, trails, and campsites.
- If there are multiple cat holes, be sure to disperse them.
- Choose an elevated site so water is less likely to runoff through that area.
- The best areas to dig your cat hole will have deep, organic soil that is likely to contain organisms that will help decompose the feces. Sunlight can also help decomposition, so look for a sunny spot.
Cover it with organic soil when you leave the site and disguise it with natural materials from the area.
There are times when a latrine is more applicable than a cat hole. If you’re staying longer than a few nights or you have children with you, this is often the preferred method. Use similar criteria when selecting a location as you would with a cat hole (200 feet from water, trails, and campsites, elevated, in sunlight, cover with native materials).
Location is very important here because there will be a higher concentration of feces to decompose. To speed up decomposition and lessen odor, throw in some soil after each use. For latrine-building techniques, you’ll want to work with your land manager.
- Use it sparingly and dispose of it properly by burying it in a cat hole or packing it out in plastic bags. (do not burn toilet paper in a cat hole).
- Natural toilet paper has been used for years and can be as sanitary as regular toilet paper when done correctly. Popular types include stones, vegetation, and snow.
- Only use non-perfumed brands of toilet paper that are plain and white.
- For Arid Lands: Packing your toilet paper out as trash is the best way to Leave No Trace in a desert environment. Do not burn it as this can cause wildfires.
Pack it out in plastic bags. Do not bury them or burn them as they don’t decompose easily and animals can dig them up.
Urine can sometimes draw out wildlife attracted to the salts. While the urine doesn’t have a big direct effect on the soil or vegetation, wildlife can dig up soil or defoliate plants if attracted to it. Your best bet is to urinate on pine needles, rocks, and gravel to avoid attracting animals.
You can dilute it with water to help minimize negative effects.
Other Forms of Waste
Every person on recreation lands has a responsibility to “Pack it in, Pack it out” before they leave.
Litter isn’t just ugly, it can be deadly for the wildlife and environment so be sure to take it with you.
- Inspect any rest areas or campsites for trash before leaving and pack out all of your garbage.
- Plan meals to avoid smelly or messy trash.
- It’s critical to pack out kitchen waste, such as leftovers or grease. Do not count on a fire for disposal.
- Buried and partially burned garbage will still attract animals.
- Carry plastic bags to haul your trash.
When you wash yourself or dishes, carry water 200 feet away from streams or lakes. Strain your dishwater with a fine mesh strainer before scattering it broadly and do so away from camp (especially in bear country). Use a clean container to collect the water and take it to a wash site. This will help keep pollutants out of the water.
Soaps and Lotions
It’s best to minimize the use of soap, because it can affect the quality of nearby lakes and streams, even if it’s biodegradable. Always wash yourself away from the shoreline and rinse from carried water (typically in a jug or pot).
Think twice before you swim in creeks and potholes if you’ve used lotion, sunscreen, insect repellent, or body oils as these can contaminate the water source.
© 1999 by the Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics: www.LNT.org
Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics
P.O. Box 997 Boulder, CO 80304 303-442-8222 www.LNT.org